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好的演講,就是要讓人不舒服 | 雙語哈評

作者:喬西·貝新(Josh Bersin) 2019-02-18 16:12:04 0

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如今電子通信工具已將人類徹底包圍。德勤一項研究顯示,美國員工(合計)一天低頭看手機的次數近80億次,研究發現自從智能手機誕生,美國的勞動生產率一直在下降。但商業世界需要將人們聚在一起分享信息,傳遞觀點,讓人們為同一個目標努力。還有什么更理想的方式么?

我要介紹一種更經典,但很少有人重視的解決方案:演講。演講之所以讓人印象不佳,是因為大多數演講都很糟。好的演講要花很多時間準備:須仔細研究,理順思路,還要字斟句酌,仔細挑選圖片,還要安排好轉場效果。然而,如果準備得當,演講的效果比其他傳播工具都要好(其實很不容易,因為現在傳播工具很多)。演講能強有力地表達觀點,陳述很有說服力,而且不用把碎片化的信息甩向聽眾,或是拋出海量信息把聽眾繞暈。

20世紀70年代,我參加了高中辯論隊,一起研究了認知失調的概念,后來我根據研究結果做了幾千場演講和啟發式談話。核心觀點其實很簡單:如果想讓一群人接受你的觀點,首先要描述一個聽眾面臨的很困難或很痛苦的情況,有可能他們還沒意識到,又或者他們認為問題會一直存在。不管什么情況,你得讓他們腦子里只剩下兩個矛盾的點:要么就是他們接受你的觀點,要么就是固守原有觀點。兩者的沖突導致的不適感越發強烈,他們感覺改變勢在必行。這時,你就可以提出對問題的解釋,然后提出你的解決方案,將不適感一掃而空,只留下和諧。

不管你是在員工會議上介紹新戰略,還是向客戶推銷產品,抑或跟團隊討論問題,這種方法都很適用。這些場合里,你都要努力推銷自己的想法,希望聽眾接受,或是勸人們改變觀點或采取某種行動。正如演講專家南希·杜阿爾特指出的,你其實是在編一個故事,先設定困難,提出解決方案,告訴觀眾該做什么,然后告訴他們最后情況會如何改善。

我混跡商界多年遇到的最好的老師是IBM一位技術大師,他培訓員工時就采用了這套方法。他講了很多跟客戶的故事,很多難搞定的挑戰。每個故事里他都先設定困難,描述慘狀(例如對方如何推諉搪塞),然后詳細解釋客戶如何經歷種種磨難也找不到毛病在哪。隨后他就像大偵探夏洛克·福爾摩斯一樣,抽絲剝繭找出核心問題,“啊哈”,輕松解決。在他的演講中,我們學習了如何解決問題,理解了構建原理,當然也更接受了IBM的產品。他的培訓課簡直就是演講圈里大師級別的。

一旦了解了這個方法,你會發現其應用廣泛,TED演講,重要講話,教育視頻、博客、文章,幾乎所有說服性交流場合里都存在。與Twitter上“即時”碎片信息不一樣,跟郵件也不同,演講提供了充足的時間解釋清楚,而且通過聲音、表情和肢體動作讓人相信應該按演講人說的做。

你還可以在展示中加入很多漂亮的圖片和圖表抓住人們的注意力,但不能只在視覺上下功夫,真正重要的是強有力的觀點和扣人心弦的好故事。我可能會覺得你用了很多美圖,但如果不能告訴我接下來該做什么,或是我能從中學到什么,很可能在我印象里你就是做了個“挺好的演講”,但不會有什么實際行動。

說到底,精心準備的演講能讓人集中精力,真正努力。如今各種各樣的工具都在讓人精神渙散,效率大受影響,注意力才是人們迫切需要的。

英文原文

It’s no secret that our digital communication tools are overwhelming us. A Deloitte study found that U.S. workers (in aggregate) look at their phones almost 8 billion times a day, and research shows that U.S. productivity has waned since the introduction of the smartphone. But the world of business needs a way to bring people together to share information and explain ideas, and to get them to reach for the same goals. So what’s the happy medium we’re looking for?

I’m going to suggest a classic, underappreciated solution: presentations. They often get a bad rap because they’re often badly made. A good one takes many hours to build: It requires research and clarity of thinking, and great care must be given to word choice, image selection, and flow. Yet when we do that important work, presentations can help us do something more effectively than almost any other communication tool at our disposal (which is saying a lot, because there are many). They enable us to make a compelling, persuasive argument — without overwhelming people with disjointed messages or a fire hose of information.

When I was on the high school debate team in the 1970s, we studied the psychological concept of cognitive dissonance, and I’ve since used it to create thousands of speeches and inspirational talks. The idea behind it is very simple: If you want a group of people to adopt your point of view, start by describing some difficult or painful issue they’re faced with. Maybe it’s a problem they didn’t realize they had, or maybe it’s something they recognize as an ongoing challenge. Either way, you’re forcing them to hold two contradictory things in their minds at once: either what they already believe and what you’re telling them, or what they know and how they behave. That dissonance ratchets up their discomfort, which makes them want to fix it. From there, you move to your explanation of the problem, and then to your proposed solution, which will replace the dissonance with harmony.

That basic formula can work effectively whether you’re articulating a new strategy at a staff meeting, pitching a product to a customer, or bringing up an issue for discussion with your team. In all these situations, you are trying to explain your idea, sell it to the audience, and ask people to change their views or take some sort of action. As presentation expert Nancy Duarte has pointed out, you are essentially creating a story, one that sets up a problem, suggests a solution, tells the audience what they should do, and describes how they’ll be better off as a result.

One of the very best teachers I ever had in business, a technical guru at IBM, used this approach in his training sessions with employees. He told lots of stories about customers and the daunting challenges they faced. In each story he would set up the problem, describe the painful symptoms (slow response time, for example), and explain all the gyrations the customer went through to figure out what was wrong. Then, like Sherlock Holmes, he would tell us how to diagnose the real issue and — “aha!” — fix it. We learned all about problem solving, architecture, and, of course, IBM’s products. His training sessions were master classes in the art of presenting.

Once you understand this approach, you can see it applied in TED talks, keynote speeches, instructional videos, blogs, articles, and almost every other form of persuasive communication out there. Unlike the “instant on” communication in Twitter, or even email, presentations give you time and room to make your case and — with help from your voice, face, and gestures — convince people that they should respond to your call to action.

You can also layer on lots of beautiful pictures and graphics to grab people’s attention, but visual candy does not substitute for a strong argument and a compelling story. I may find your images engaging, but if they don’t tell me what to do or what I must learn, I may just remember your talk as a “good presentation,” and never take any action as a result.

Above all, a well-crafted presentation gets people to focus their attention and their efforts. And focus is something we all desperately need when so many other tools are distracting us instead of making us more productive.

喬西·貝新(Josh Bersin)| 文  

喬西·貝新2004年創立了Bersin & Associates(如今是德勤旗下貝新部門),主要在企業學習、領導力、人才管理和人力技術等方面進行研究并提供咨詢服務。如今他在德勤貝新部門負責長期戰略,指導研究方向以及保持市場領先地位。

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